Types of Artificial Intelligence 

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence.

WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?

  • Siri, Alexa and other smart assistants
  • Self-driving cars
  • Robo-advisors
  • Conversational bots
  • Email spam filters
  • Netflix’s recommendations

What are the four distinct types of artificial intelligence?

These four types aren’t all created equal: Some are far more sophisticated than others. Some of these types of AI aren’t even scientifically possible right now. According to the current system of classification, there are four primary AI types: 

  • Reactive Machines
  • Limited Memory
  • Theory of Mind
  • Self-Awareness
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Reactive AI

The most basic type of artificial intelligence is reactive AI, which is programmed to provide a predictable output based on the input it receives. Reactive machines always respond to identical situations in the exact same way every time, and they are not able to learn actions or conceive of past or future.
Examples of reactive AI include:
●    Deep Blue, the chess-playing IBM supercomputer that bested world champion Garry Kasparov
●    Spam filters for our email that keep promotions and phishing attempts out of our inboxes
●    The Netflix recommendation engine
Reactive AI was an enormous step forward in the history of artificial intelligence development, but these types of AIs can’t function beyond the tasks they were initially designed for. That makes them inherently limited and ripe for improvement. Scientists developed the next type of AI from this foundation.

Limited Memory AI

Limited memory AI learns from the past and builds experiential knowledge by observing actions or data. This type of AI uses historical, observational data in combination with pre-programmed information to make predictions and perform complex classification tasks. It is the most widely-used kind of AI today.

For example, autonomous vehicles use limited memory AI to observe other cars’ speed and direction, helping them “read the road” and adjust as needed. This process for understanding and interpreting incoming data makes them safer on the roads.
However, limited memory AI – as its name suggests – is still limited. The information that autonomous vehicles work with is fleeting, and it is not saved in the car’s long-term memory.

Theory of Mind AI

Want to hold a meaningful conversation with an emotionally intelligent robot that looks and sounds like a real human being? That’s on the horizon with theory of mind AI.
With this type of AI, machines will acquire true decision-making capabilities that are similar to humans. Machines with theory of mind AI will be able to understand and remember emotions, then adjust behavior based on those emotions as they interact with people.
There are still a number of hurdles to achieving theory of mind AI, because the process of shifting behavior based on rapidly shifting emotions is so fluid in human communication. It is difficult to mimic as we try to create more and more emotionally intelligent machines.
That said, we are making progress. The Kismet robot head, developed by Professor Cynthia Breazeal, could recognize emotional signals on human faces and replicate those emotions on its own face. Humanoid robot Sophia, developed by Hanson Robotics in Hong Kong, can recognize faces and respond to interactions with her own facial expressions.

Self-aware AI
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The most advanced type of artificial intelligence is self-aware AI. When machines can be aware of their own emotions, as well as the emotions of others around them, they will have a level of consciousness and intelligence similar to human beings. This type of AI will have desires, needs, and emotions as well.
Machines with this type of AI will be self-aware of their internal emotions and mental states. They will be able to make inferences (such as “I’m feeling angry because someone cut me off in traffic”) that are not possible with other types of AI.
We haven’t developed this type of sophisticated AI yet and don’t have the hardware or algorithms to support it.

How Does Artificial Intelligence Work?

AI Approaches and Concepts

Less than a decade after breaking the Nazi encryption machine Enigma and helping the Allied Forces win World War II, mathematician Alan Turing changed history a second time with a simple question: “Can machines think?” 

Turing’s paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1950), and its subsequent Turing Test, established the fundamental goal and vision of artificial intelligence.   

At its core, AI is the branch of computer science that aims to answer Turing’s question in the affirmative. It is the endeavor to replicate or simulate human intelligence in machines.

The major limitation in defining AI as simply “building machines that are intelligent” is that it doesn’t actually explain what artificial intelligence is? What makes a machine intelligent? AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, but advancements in machine learning and deep learning are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every sector of the tech industry. 

The first two ideas concern thought processes and reasoning, while the others deal with behavior. Norvig and Russell focus particularly on rational agents that act to achieve the best outcome, noting “all the skills needed for the Turing Test also allow an agent to act rationally.”

While these definitions may seem abstract to the average person, they help focus the field as an area of computer science and provide a blueprint for infusing machines and programs with machine learning and other subsets of artificial intelligence.

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1 thought on “Types of Artificial Intelligence ”

  1. Since I am new to IT, I didn’t know what type of questions would I get in the interview. These Interview questions and answers article help me to get clear understanding on both questions and answers.

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